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Tuesday, 25 April 2017

«1984» - Infographic & Plot Summary


1984 is set in a possible future in which the world has been ravaged by war and hungry and fearful citizens must pledge allegiance to a paranoid regime that keeps them ignorant through misinformation. Winston Smith, the main character of the novel, lives in London—though England is now called Airstrip One. Airstrip One is part of a large superstate called Oceania, which comprises all of Britain, Iceland, Australia, and New Zealand, as well as the Americas and southern Africa.

Book 1

In Oceania a force called Big Brother watches and spies on people through telescreens, which are like TVs that transmit both ways. It does double duty, spying on citizens and transmitting pro-Party propaganda, instructions, calisthenics, pro–Big Brother music, and more. The city is plastered with Party slogans such as WAR IS PEACE, FREEDOM IS SLAVERY, and IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH. This is doublethink, a concept that rules Oceania. Doublethink is the ability to hold two opposing beliefs at the same time and accept both of them. But doublethink concepts cancel each other out and, therefore, make no sense.
The Ministry of Truth, where Winston works, is in charge of rewriting history to align with what the Party decides is truth at the moment. The Ministry of Love is in charge of law, order, and torture; the Ministry of Plenty is in charge of economic affairs and the perpetuation of artificial scarcity; and the Ministry of Peace is in charge of perpetual war.
Winston writes in his diary about his hatred for the Party. As he writes—itself a crime punishable by death—he remembers two people he noticed that morning at work. The first is a coworker named O'Brien. O'Brien appears to be an orthodox Party member, but Winston decides that he is really a rebel. The other is a young woman known at first only as "a dark-haired girl."
At work one day, Winston discusses editing the Newspeak dictionary with Syme, a coworker. Syme's job is to eliminate words from Oldspeak (Standard English) and come up with a language with very few words. Newspeak deprives people of the ability to express themselves in any nuanced way or have individual ideas.
Winston visits Mr. Charrington, the unassuming cockney owner of an antique shop. Mr. Charrington shows him an upstairs room that appears to be without a telescreen. Winston imagines renting it as a refuge, and, as he leaves the shop, he sees the dark-haired girl again.

Book 2

The dark-haired girl, Julia, surreptitiously drops a note into Winston's hand that says, "I love you." Winston and Julia begin to meet away from telescreens and microphones. They meet often in the midst of loud, angry, crowds thick enough that they can touch hands without being noticed. Once they make love in the belfry of a church. Eventually Winston rents the room above the antique shop, and they meet more frequently.
Winston takes notice of an elderly woman whom he sees often doing laundry and singing. He thinks she is happy and free. Like other proles (or working-class people), she is "off the radar" of the Party. Many proles don't even have telescreens in their houses. Winston realizes that the Party will only be overthrown if the proles come to understand their power and rise up.
One day at work, O'Brien invites Winston to his posh apartment. Julia goes along, and they tell O'Brien they want to join the Brotherhood, the group believed to be fighting the Party. O'Brien asks them a series of grisly questions to determine what they are willing to do for the cause. Julia's only condition is that she is unwilling to be separated from Winston. O'Brien accepts them and makes plans to get Winston a copy of the manifesto (nicknamed "the book"), or mission statement, of the counterrevolutionary leader Emmanuel Goldstein.
Later Winston reads aloud to Julia from "the book" in the room above the antique shop. When a voice comes from behind a picture on the wall, they realize there is a telescreen in the room and that they have been discovered. Thought Police come into the room along with Mr. Charrington, who is revealed to be an orthodox Party member.

Book 3

Winston and Julia have been separated and presumably taken to different prisons. Winston is being held prisoner with other suspected dissidents. One man piteously begs to be taken anywhere but Room 101. Eventually O'Brien enters and reveals that he is also a true member of the Party. A guard takes Winston to a private cell, where he is tortured and admits to things he's never done. O'Brien alternately dials the pain level up and down, but Winston holds onto what he knows to be true and does not betray Julia. Although he eventually agrees to believe whatever O'Brien says, one night he calls out Julia's name, showing his humanity is still intact.
Winston is eventually taken to Room 101, the place where prisoners are forced to face their worst nightmares. O'Brien shows Winston a cage with rats in it and tells him that the hungry rats will eat his face if they're let free. Winston, who has a phobia of rats so severe that it makes him faint, is defeated and calls out, "Do it to Julia!" before losing consciousness.
Winston is released, and, in the next scene, he is at his favorite cafĂ©. He has gained weight, has a better job at the Ministry, and has enough money to drink all the gin he wants. In fact, he lives for gin, doesn't care about truth or untruth, and accepts doublethink. He sees Julia on the street one day, and they each admit that they betrayed the other. They talk briefly, but they don't seem to connect. In the dust of the table, Winston draws 2 + 2 = 5 and then looks at a poster of Big Brother and asks himself why he ever rebelled against that loving face.

Sunday, 23 April 2017

25 Spring Writing Prompts

1. Imagine that Spring Fever was a real person. What would he/she look like? What would he/she do? 

2. If you were a bee, would you rather be a guard bee, a scout bee, or a nursery bee and why? 

3. Spring is a time of new beginnings. What’s something new that you would like to start doing? 

4. Pretend that you are spring cleaning the garage and find an old wooden box. When you open the box, what do you find? 

5. Write a persuasive letter explaining why spring break should be longer. 

6. Spring cleaning is a time to get rid of things we don’t need. Think of three things you might want to get rid of and explain why. 

7. Imagine that you found a baby bird in your backyard and nursed it to health. When the baby bird was out of danger, you found out that it had one superpower. Write a story about this super bird. 

8. What do you think is Earth’s biggest environmental problem? Write about what you think should be done to solve this problem. 

9. If you were a bunny, where would you want to live? Describe your life in that place. 

10. If you were in charge of a garden, what would you grow and why? 

11. Imagine that you found a magical coin while digging a hole in the garden. This coin gives you three wishes. What would those wishes be? 

12. Baby animals are born in the spring. Imagine you could pick any baby animal to be a pet. Which one would you pick and why? 

13. Imagine that you were so tiny that the grass was as tall as trees, and you could use a leaf as a blanket. Write a story about your adventures outside. 

14. Imagine that each season was a person. Describe each season (what he/she looks like, his/her behavior, and their interaction). 

15. Write a story about your life as a butterfly. 

16. Imagine you have been cooped up all winter and finally the snow has melted and it’s a beautiful spring day. How would you feel being able to get outside? What would you do on a day like this? 

17. Imagine that you took a walk in the park and accidentally upset a beehive. Now the whole hive is chasing you. What would you do? You can make it as silly or as realistic as you would like it to be. 

18. Write a how-to essay related to spring (how to make a bird feeder, how to dye Easter Eggs, how to care for a bunny, how to plant a garden, how to prepare for a nature hike…) 

19. Write a persuasive essay for or against spring testing. 

20. Imagine that you found an egg on the grass and when you picked it up, it took you to another time and place. Write about your experiences. 

21. Describe five ways kids can help take care of the Earth. 

22. The first week of May is Teacher Appreciation Week. Write a letter to a teacher (past or present) that you appreciate. Explain what that teacher has meant to you and why he/she was so memorable. Proofread it and then find a way to get it delivered to that teacher. 

23. Write a persuasive essay to convince your teacher to have classes outdoors more often. 

24. Imagine that you were able to find the end of a rainbow. Instead of a pot of gold though, what amazing thing did you find? 

25. Imagine that your class is having a picnic at the park. Imagine that instead of being a student, you are an insect at the park (ladybug, grasshopper, ant, etc.). Describe this picnic from the insect’s point of view.


Friday, 21 April 2017

Time - vocabulary

Time



Second:
 base unit of time. There are 60 seconds in one minute.Measure in seconds, minutes, hours, days is called time.Time includes:
  • Minute: Unit of time that is equal to 60 seconds
  • Hour: unit of time that is equal to 60 minutes
  • Half: 30 minutes
  • Quarter: 15 minutes
  • O’clock: used for the hour without minutes

Clocks and watches


Device to indicate time is called clock. The clock can include:

Clocks and Watches
Clocks and watches
  • Grandfather clock: a tall clock with pendulum that is in a carved wooden case. It is also called a longcase clock
  • Alarm clock: a clock that is used to awaken people at a particular time with a sound.
  • Watch: a small clock that is worn on a wrist
  • Digital watch: a watch with a display that indicates time as a number

Telling time

Past is used after the minutes 1-30. To is used after the minutes 31-59.
Telling time
Telling time

  • 9:00 it’s nine o’clock (abbreviation: of clock)
  • 9:01 it’s one minute past nine
  • 9:03 it’s three minutes past nine
  • 9:05 it’s five past nine (also nine oh five)
  • 9:10 it’s ten past nine (also nine ten)
  • 9:15 it’s a quarter past nine (also nine fifteen)
  • 9:30 it’s half past nine (also nine thirty)
  • 9:40 It’s twenty to ten (also nine forty)
  • 9:45 it’s a quarter to ten (also nine forty-five)
  • 9:50 it’s ten to ten (also nine fifty)
  • 9:57 it’s three minutes to ten
  • 10:00 it’s ten o’clock

 12-hour clock

AM and PM
AM and PM

We use a.m. and p.m. for 12-hour clock.
  • a.m. (ante meridiem): before midday
  • p.m. (post meridiem): after midday

Compare


The 24-hour clock
The 12-hour clock
00:00
12:00  am (midnight)
09:00
9:00 am
10:30
10:30 am
12:00
12:00 pm (noon)
13:45
1:45 pm
20:15
8:15 pm
24:00
Midnight

The 12-hour clock
The 12-hour clock

Asking the time


We can use different ways to ask the time:
  • What is the time? (informal)
  • What time is it? (informal)
  • What time is it, please?
  • Could you tell me the time, please? (more formal)
  • Do you happen to have the time?
  • Do you know what time is it?

Wednesday, 19 April 2017

«Persuasion» - Infographic & Plot Summary


Persuasion takes place in England, beginning in the summer of 1814 and continuing over the course of about eight months. Twenty-seven-year-old Anne Elliot, overlooked by nearly everyone other than her friend and godmother Lady Russell, lives with her father—Sir Walter Elliot—and older, unmarried sister Elizabeth at the Elliott estate, Kellynch Hall. Her younger sister Mary is married to Charles Musgrove and lives nearby at his family's estate, Uppercross. A widower, the vain Sir Walter lives an extravagant life. During his annual trip to London he confesses to Elizabeth, his favored daughter, that they are in financial trouble.
Sir Walter reluctantly agrees to rent Kellynch Hall to Admiral and Mrs. Croft and subsequently moves to Bath to save money and face. Coincidentally Mrs. Croft is the sister of Captain Frederick Wentworth, to whom Anne was persuaded to break an engagement eight years before.
Wanting attention for her many imagined ailments, Mary invites Anne to visit her at Uppercross Cottage, after which Anne will stay with Lady Russell until they both travel to Bath for the winter.
Before their tenants arrive, Sir Walter and Elizabeth depart for Bath. Mrs. Clay, an intimate friend of Elizabeth's whose insinuating character Anne finds questionable, accompanies Sir Walter and Elizabeth. Anne stays with Lady Russell for a week.
When Lady Russell leaves, Anne goes to Uppercross where she stays for two months attending to her sister's complaints, but enjoying the company of the Musgroves and their large family. Soon after, the Crofts arrive at Kellynch Hall and call on the elder Musgroves; the Crofts' presence stirs Anne's emotions.
A week later news of Captain Frederick Wentworth's arrival at Kellynch Hall reaches Anne. When he is invited to dinner at the elder Musgroves, Anne tries to avoid him and stays home with her nephew, Charles Jr., who has been injured, while Mary and her husband dine at her in-laws'. The next morning Captain Wentworth calls on Mary, and he and Anne see each other for the first time since they parted eight years before.
During the next month Anne and Wentworth meet several times. Henrietta and Louisa Musgrove take interest in the captain, and Anne quietly observes their interactions. One day while Anne tends to Charles Jr., his younger brother Walter pesters her and ignores her directions. While Charles Hayter, a Musgrove cousin and suitor of Henrietta, distractedly tells Walter to heed Anne, Wentworth "rescues" her by lifting her nephew from her back.
During a walk in the country Anne overhears Louisa tell Wentworth that Anne had refused her brother Charles's proposal. Louisa's comments about Henrietta's fickleness and her admiration for the Crofts' relationship lead Wentworth to compliment Louisa on her strong character. Anne feels certain that he intends to marry Louisa. Shortly after Wentworth takes an impromptu trip to the seaside city of Lyme to visit a friend.
Inspired by Wentworth's praise of Lyme, Louisa organizes an outing there for herself, Henrietta, Anne, Charles, Wentworth, and Mary. They meet the Harvilles and Captain Benwick, Wentworth's naval friends, and enjoy the family's hospitality. While walking near the ocean, Anne and Wentworth notice a gentleman admire her. The group suspects he is Anne's cousin and Sir Walter's heir, William Elliot.
On their last visit to the Cobb (the harbor wall) Louisa falls and suffers a concussion. The only one thinking clearly, Anne directs the group to help Louisa, who stays with the Harvilles.
Henrietta, Anne, and Wentworth return to Uppercross. After informing the Musgroves of the accident, Wentworth returns immediately to Lyme. After a few days Anne encourages the Musgroves to go to Lyme during Louisa's convalescence. Anne returns to Lady Russell's. During a visit with the Crofts, Admiral Croft comments on Wentworth's strange way of wooing and expresses surprise that he hadn't already settled matters with Louisa. When Mary and Charles return from Lyme they argue over whether Captain Benwick is in love with Anne. Meanwhile, Wentworth leaves Lyme.
In January Anne and Lady Russell venture to Bath. Anne learns that her father and Elizabeth have reconciled with William Elliot. When he visits, he and Anne remember their Lyme encounter. They become acquainted; despite his charm Anne mistrusts him. Anne renews a friendship with her former classmate, Mrs. Smith, who is now a poor invalid living in rented rooms in Bath.
In February Louisa returns to Uppercross and announces her engagement to Captain Benwick. On a walk Anne meets Admiral Croft, now in Bath, who resolves to bring Wentworth to Bath. Wentworth arrives on his own, even before the invitation is sent, and Anne sees him in town. Her emotions are strong.
At a concert Anne begins a conversation with Captain Wentworth, who is happily surprised at the news of Louisa's engagement. Their guarded conversation reveals the possibility he still loves Anne. During the concert however, William Elliot sits next to her and interrupts the conversation. Captain Wentworth seems jealous and leaves.
The next day Anne visits Mrs. Smith and learns about William Elliot's unsavory past, which includes failing to have executed the will of Mrs. Smith's husband. Anne's suspicions about him are confirmed. When the Musgroves arrive in Bath, Anne devotes her time to them. At their hotel Anne sees Captain Wentworth, who mentions how long it has been since they were engaged. The next day Anne visits the Musgroves again, where Wentworth overhears her and Captain Harville discuss love and constancy. He guesses correctly that Anne's impassioned defense of women's constancy "when hope is gone" is meant for him. He confesses his love to Anne in a letter that he leaves for her, asking her to tell him "with a look" if she still loves him. Overwhelmed she leaves. Wentworth finds her in the street and, encouraged by Anne, proposes.